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Rest Parameters

Introduction to JavaScript rest parameters

ES6 provides a new kind of parameter so-called rest parameter that has a prefix of three dots (...). A rest parameter allows you to represent an indefinite number of arguments as an array. See the following syntax:

function fn(a,b,...args) {

The last parameter (args) is prefixed with the three-dots ( ...). It’s called a rest parameter ( ...args).

All the arguments you pass to the function will map to the parameter list. In the syntax above, the first argument maps to a, the second one maps to b, and the third, the fourth, etc., will be stored in the rest parameter args as an array. For example:

fn(1, 2, 3, "A", "B", "C"); 

The args array stores the following values:


If you pass only the first two parameters, the rest parameter will be an empty array:


The args will be:


Notice that the rest parameters must appear at the end of the argument list. The following code will result in an error:

function fn(a,, b) {
// error


SyntaxError: Rest parameter must be last formal parameter 

More JavaScript rest parameters examples

See the following example:

function sum(...args) {
    let total = 0;
    for (const a of args) {
        total += a;
    return total;

sum(1, 2, 3); 

The output of the script is:


In this example, args in an array. Therefore, you could use the for..of loop to iterate over its elements and sum them up.

Assuming that the caller of the sum() function may pass arguments with various kinds of data types such as number, string, and boolean, and you want to calculate the total of numbers only:

function sum(...args) {
  return args
    .filter(function (e) {
      return typeof e === 'number';
    .reduce(function (prev, curr) {
      return prev + curr;

The following script uses the new sum() function to sum only numeric arguments:

let result = sum(10,'Hi',null,undefined,20);



Note that without the rest parameters, you have to use the arguments object of the function.

However, the arguments object itself is not an instance of the Array type. Therefore, you cannot use the filter() method directly. In ES5, you have to use as follows:

function sum() {
  return Array.prototype.filter
    .call(arguments, function (e) {
      return typeof e === 'number';
    .reduce(function (prev, curr) {
      return prev + curr;

As you see, the rest parameter makes the code more elegant. Suppose you need to filter the arguments based on a specific type such as numbers, strings, boolean, and null. The following function helps you to do it:

function filterBy(type, ...args) {
  return args.filter(function (e) {
    return typeof e === type;

JavaScript rest parameters and arrow function

An arrow function does not have the arguments object. Therefore, if you want to pass some arguments to the arrow function, you must use the rest parameters. See the following example:

const combine = (...args) => {
  return args.reduce(function (prev, curr) {
    return prev + ' ' + curr;

let message = combine('JavaScript', 'Rest', 'Parameters'); // =>console.log(message);
// JavaScript Rest Parameters 


JavaScript Rest Parameters

The combine() function is an arrow that takes an indefinite number of arguments and concatenates these arguments.

JavaScript rest parameter in a dynamic function

JavaScript allows you to create dynamic functions through the Function constructor. And it is possible to use the rest parameter in a dynamic function. Here is an example:

var showNumbers = new Function('...numbers', 'console.log(numbers)');
showNumbers(1, 2, 3); 


[ 1, 2, 3 ] 

In this tutorial, you have learned how to use the JavaScript rest parameter to represent an indefinite number of arguments as an array.

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